The Court docket of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit affirmed the dismissal of a shareholder by-product motion in gentle of an exclusive-forum bylaw requiring assertion of by-product claims within the Delaware Court docket of Chancery, although the case included a federal declare that was topic to unique federal jurisdiction and couldn’t have been litigated within the Delaware court docket. The Might 13, 2022 ruling in Lee ex rel. The Hole, Inc. v. Fisher might encourage the adoption of related forum-selection provisions and seems to create a partial cut up with the Seventh Circuit’s latest ruling in one other by-product motion difficult an “identical” forum-selection clause.
The Lee case alleges that The Hole and its administrators “failed to create meaningful diversity within company leadership” and that the corporate made misstatements in its proxy statements about its variety achievements. A shareholder of The Hole, which is a Delaware company, introduced a by-product motion in federal court docket asserting a proxy-law violation beneath § 14(a) of the Securities Change Act in addition to violations of state regulation.
The Hole had beforehand adopted a forum-selection bylaw requiring that “‘any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation’” be adjudicated solely within the Delaware Court docket of Chancery. The plaintiff conceded that the forum-selection clause was legitimate, however insisted that it nonetheless was unenforceable as a result of it violates the Change Act’s anti-waiver provision (§ 29) and would forestall her from asserting her § 14(a) proxy declare in any respect, inasmuch as such claims could be litigated solely in federal court docket.
The district court docket dismissed the case based mostly on the discussion board clause, and the Ninth Circuit affirmed.
The Court docket’s Resolution
The Ninth Circuit framed its evaluation beneath Supreme Court docket precedent holding that forum-selection clauses should be enforced besides in “extraordinary circumstances”: (i) if the discussion board provision was “invalid because of fraud or overreaching,” (ii) if “enforcement of the clause would contravene a strong public policy of the forum in which suit is brought,” or (iii) if the pre-selected discussion board “would be so gravely difficult and inconvenient that the plaintiff will for all practical purposes be deprived of his day in court.” The plaintiff centered solely on the second of these circumstances, however the Ninth Circuit rejected it.
First, the court docket held that the Change Act’s anti-waiver provision didn’t contravene any “strong federal public policy” as a result of “the strong federal policy in favor of enforcing forum-selection clauses . . . supersede[s] anti-waiver provisions in state statutes as well as federal statutes.” The court docket didn’t learn the Change Act’s anti-waiver provision as containing “a clear declaration of federal policy.”
Second, the court docket concluded that the Change Act’s exclusive-jurisdiction provision (§ 27) additionally didn’t present “a clear statutory declaration” in opposition to the forum-selection provision. In accordance with the Ninth Circuit, § 27 merely “forbids non-federal courts from adjudicating Section 14(a) claims,” however The Hole’s bylaws “do not force the Delaware Court of Chancery to adjudicate” such claims. As a substitute, the § 14(a) declare can be dismissed. The court docket additionally noticed that the Supreme Court docket has held that the Change Act’s forum-exclusivity is waivable.
Third, the court docket held that the plaintiff had not “identified any Delaware law clearly stating that she could not get any relief in the Delaware Court of Chancery.” The plaintiff’s reply temporary had cited the Seventh Circuit’s latest choice in Seafarers Pension Plan ex rel. Boeing Co. v. Bradway, by which a divided panel had held an “identical Boeing forum-selection clause” unenforceable as opposite to Delaware and federal regulation. (We blogged concerning the Boeing case here.) However not like the Seventh Circuit plaintiff, the plaintiff right here had not raised Delaware-law points within the district court docket or in her opening temporary on attraction, so she was deemed to have waived them.
Because the Ninth Circuit famous, nonetheless, the Seventh Circuit had based mostly its choice on federal regulation in addition to Delaware regulation. Thus, although the Ninth Circuit didn’t rule on Delaware-law points, it seems to have disagreed with the Seventh Circuit’s evaluation of federal regulation. The Ninth Circuit’s choice thus may arrange a circuit cut up on the federal situation, though the readability of the cut up may be clouded by the significance of the Delaware-law evaluation within the Seventh Circuit’s choice.
The Ninth Circuit’s ruling may spur a transfer to draft broad exclusive-forum provisions that cowl even claims which might be topic to unique federal jurisdiction. The Seventh Circuit’s choice might need dampened these efforts, however the Ninth Circuit’s choice might reignite enthusiasm. The difficulty most likely might want to go to the Supreme Court docket, however it’s unclear whether or not the present Seventh-vs.-Ninth-Circuit dichotomy offers the most effective automobile for the Court docket to contemplate a circuit cut up.