Litigation and Enforcement Impact of the SEC’s Proposed Rules on Climate-Related Disclosure

The Securities and Change Fee’s Proposed Rules on Climate-Related Disclosure, launched March 21, 2022, characterize a major change in public firm disclosure necessities and, if adopted, could have far-reaching results not solely on all public corporations but additionally on these inside the corporations’ worth chain. Whereas the short-term and long-term import of the proposed guidelines continues to be being assessed, you will need to think about the substantial affect these new necessities could have on corporations’ enforcement and litigation dangers.    

In gentle of the latest focus on Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) points by all stakeholders, corporations already face enforcement and litigation danger from a number of sources, together with federal and state regulators, shareholders, customers, activists, and even business counter-parties.1 The SEC’s proposed disclosure guidelines, if carried out, will possible improve these dangers, and the in depth new necessities will present regulators and litigants with a considerably enhanced arsenal with which to convey such actions. 

Beneath we offer a short overview of the enforcement and litigation setting associated to local weather danger and ESG points, and then tackle some of the extra particular dangers arising out of the SEC’s proposed guidelines.

Local weather & ESG-related Enforcement and Litigation
Authorities regulators, traders and the public have demonstrated that they intend to carry corporations accountable for his or her public statements concerning local weather danger and different ESG elements, whether or not in SEC filings, sustainability reviews, advertising and marketing supplies or just on the firm’s web site.2 If an organization’s actions don’t match its representations—or if an organization makes materially false or deceptive statements or omissions—it ought to anticipate regulators, shareholders and activists to think about authorized motion that may have profound monetary and reputational penalties.  

Though not the solely federal company listening to climate-risk and ESG, the SEC has taken the most aggressive coverage motion to this point.3 It created a Local weather and ESG Job Power in its Division of Enforcement final yr, which is targeted on figuring out materials gaps or misstatements in firm disclosures of local weather dangers.4 The SEC has made clear that the full and correct disclosure of ESG-related info stays an examination precedence, and has warned towards “greenwashing,” or overstating or misrepresenting sustainability practices and commitments.5

The SEC has opened a number of investigations into numerous ESG-related issues, and, notably, in the months previous to issuing the proposal, the SEC employees initiated months-long correspondence with a quantity of publicly-traded corporations asking detailed questions on climate-related impacts on their enterprise and the variations between climate-related disclosures of their SEC filings and these of their voluntary sustainability or company social duty reviews.6 This initiative possible knowledgeable the drafting of the proposed necessary disclosures and additionally serves as a information to potential future enforcement actions. In brief, corporations ought to anticipate the SEC to focus on each the disclosures in the SEC filings themselves and comparisons to different firm statements.

In response to SEC Chair Gary Gensler, the new complete disclosure regime is meant to make sure that full, correct, and constant climate-related info is obtainable to traders, to allow them to make sufficiently knowledgeable investing choices.7 There might be little doubt, and Mr. Gensler has confirmed, that the SEC will use the full extent of its enforcement powers beneath the securities legal guidelines to take motion towards non-compliance and deceptive or false disclosures.8

State regulators have additionally been analyzing climate-related company disclosures. Over the final decade, New York’s Attorneys Normal have utilized the Martin Act, the state’s broad anti-fraud statute, to focus on corporations in the vitality trade. In these investigations, the AGs examined how local weather dangers had been analyzed internally by the firm and in contrast these analyses to the firm’s public-facing disclosures. Investigators targeted on whether or not the dangers that boards and administration mentioned behind closed doorways correlated with their exterior communications to traders and different stakeholders. Corporations must also anticipate elevated scrutiny by different states based mostly on the proposed expanded disclosure necessities.9

Along with authorities regulators, shareholders, traders, and customers have been devoting vital consideration to corporations’ climate-related disclosures and practices. Securities class actions based mostly on claims of false or deceptive statements, in each SEC filings and different public statements, concerning a range of local weather and ESG points have been on the rise, together with shareholder spinoff actions that search to implement reform by way of litigation. Shopper safety statutes and false promoting prohibitions have additionally been utilized to convey lawsuits towards corporations for alleged greenwashing.  Examples of latest instances embody claims that corporations overstated the recyclability of their merchandise and claims that corporations falsely asserted the environmentally secure nature of their merchandise or manufacturing processes.10 Regardless of the deserves of some of these claims, they’re typically pricey, to each an organization’s funds and its repute. 

The excellent and detailed necessary disclosures in the SEC proposal will certainly intensify scrutiny of corporations’ disclosures and could result in extra, and extra encompassing, litigation based mostly on purported deceptive or incomplete statements. And, given litigation developments, it could be that shareholder and investor litigation takes the lead in enforcement of the new guidelines.

One other space of danger value noting is business litigation. Whether or not it issues an organization’s suppliers, distributors, contractual counter-parties, or joint-venture companions, ESG-related dangers require corporations topic to SEC disclosure guidelines to make sure not solely that their very own organizations are in compliance with their publicly said insurance policies and practices, but additionally that corporations with whom they do enterprise – or intend to do enterprise – are as effectively. For instance, a public firm could disclose that each one elements of its provide chain have interaction in sure sustainability practices and adjust to all native environmental legal guidelines, however a significant provider’s deviation from that observe may render the disclosure inaccurate. Penalties may embody publicity to enforcement exercise, client or shareholder litigation, and litigation with the third-party who has breached its contractual obligations to the firm. The SEC’s proposal makes this final class of litigation danger extra distinguished.

Elevated Danger Below New SEC Proposed Climate-Related Disclosure Rules
The in depth proposed climate-related disclosures enlarge the dangers of enforcement and litigation outlined above. Whereas the normal scope of the guidelines has been described by the SEC as requiring details about “climate-related risks that are reasonably likely to have a material impact on [a company’s] business, results of operations, or financial condition,” the particular necessities element what climate-related dangers the SEC considers materials and impose a major obligation on corporations to gather, assess, validate, handle, mitigate and report info on an unprecedented scale.11 It stays to be seen whether or not the guidelines shall be adopted as proposed or modified, however there’s a normal consensus that some type of necessary climate-related disclosures is prone to be carried out. Both manner, the SEC proposal gives a roadmap to regulators and non-public litigants alike.

As now we have famous beforehand, the proposal requires, amongst different issues:

  • particular disclosure of greenhouse fuel (GHG) emission metrics protecting Scope 1 (direct emissions) and Scope 2 (oblique emissions, e.g. bought electrical energy) for all corporations, and Scope 3 (oblique emissions in worth chain) emissions which can be materials, or if an organization has set Scope 3 discount targets;

  • in depth and particular disclosures concerning climate-related bodily dangers and transition dangers to an organization’s monetary statements, enterprise operations or third-party worth chain;12

  • particular quantitative and qualitative monetary info associated to climate-risk;

  • particular and detailed disclosures about governance, enterprise technique, monetary planning, danger evaluation and danger administration;

  • disclosure of any climate-related targets or objectives, transition plans, use of state of affairs evaluation or an inner carbon value, and determination making associated to targets, plans, analytical instruments;

  • annual updates on actions taken and progress towards reaching climate-related targets or objectives; and

  • attestation necessities for sure filers.

These detailed disclosure necessities, and many others in the proposed rule, presents a possibility for regulators and litigants to aim to determine particular misstatements or incomplete or allegedly deceptive statements. And, it ought to be anticipated that there shall be comparisons of an organization’s SEC disclosures to different public-facing statements, corresponding to sustainability reviews and web site advertising and marketing, in addition to larger scrutiny of an organization’s publicly accessible info concerning its related operations and these of the corporations inside its worth chain. 

Moreover, the disclosures mandate extraordinary publicity of the administration and operations of an organization, and activist shareholders could use the info to strain firm boards or direct decision-making, rising the probability of shareholder spinoff actions, proxy fights and board election battles.

Corporations which have already launched plans concerning carbon-reduction targets, reaching net-zero, or different climate-related commitments ought to evaluate and assess these plans in gentle of the necessary disclosures and be ready for his or her traders and the SEC to do the similar.  Corporations that haven’t but set targets or objectives, or haven’t launched them, must also consider the dangers and necessities of doing so. 

General, as we’ve suggested, company governance, together with a strong and built-in risk-assessment and compliance program, is important to each addressing the proposed guidelines and mitigating danger.13 When firm boards, government administration, and in-house counsel are evaluating the new disclosure necessities, their climate-related and different ESG dangers, and associated enterprise technique, they need to even be together with litigation and enforcement danger in the evaluation. 



1. See Bracewell articles titled “More Focus on ESG Means More Scrutiny, Litigation and Enforcement, Too,” “ESG Regulatory Landscape Creates Commercial Pitfalls” and “COVID, Climate Change and ESG – The Future of Disclosures, SEC Enforcement, and Securities Litigation.”

2. See Goldman Sachs Grp., Inc. v. Arkansas Tchr. Ret. Sys., 141 S. Ct. 1951, 210 L. Ed. 2nd 347 (2021); see additionally Ramirez v. Exxon Cell Company, 334 F. Supp. 3d 832 (N.D. Tex. 2018); Individuals by James v. Exxon Mobil Company, 65 Misc. 3d 1233(A), 119 N.Y.S.3d 829 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. 2019); and Metropolis of Pontiac Gen. Staff’ Ret. Sys. V. Bush, No. 20CV06651JSTTSH, 2021 WL 2588979 (N.D. Cal. 2021).

3. See, e.g., Consideration of Greenhouse Gasoline Emissions in Pure Gasoline Infrastructure Undertaking Opinions, 178 FERC ¶ 61,108 (2022) (proposed coverage governing the evaluate of greenhouse fuel emissions and climate-related impacts from interstate pure fuel pipeline initiatives and LNG initiatives).

4. SEC Press Launch titled “SEC Announces Enforcement Task Force Focused on Climate and ESG Issues,” dated March 4, 2021. (

5. SEC Press Launch titled “SEC Division of Examinations Announces 2022 Examination Priorities,” dated March 30, 2022. (

6. SEC Press Launch titled “Sample Letter to Companies Regarding Climate Change Disclosures,” dated September 22, 2021. (

7. SEC Assertion titled “Statement on Proposed Mandatory Climate Risk Disclosures,” dated March 21, 2022. (

8. See Chairman Gary Gensler’s remarks at a briefing (; see additionally SEC Speech titled “Building Upon a Long Tradition” dated April 12, 2022. (

9. Enhanced scrutiny may come from state treasurers, who could alter state investments in accordance with disclosures beneath the new rule.  Whereas such funding choices should not enforcement or litigation, they amplify the energy of states to leverage the SEC’s disclosure guidelines to satisfy state insurance policies on local weather change.

10. See Bush v. Rust-oleum Corp., 2020 WL 8917154 (N.D. Cal.); see additionally Earth Island Institute v. Coca-Cola Co., 2021-CA-001846 (D.C. Tremendous. Ct.) and Gardner v. Starkist Co., 2020 WL 1531346 (N.D. Cal.).

11. See the Proposed Rule Abstract on the Federal Register at 1. (

12. “Value chain means the upstream and downstream activities related to a registrant’s operations.” Proposed Rule, Subpart 229.1500.

13. See Bracewell’s Insights on SEC Local weather Disclosure Proposal and article titled “More Focus on ESG Means More Scrutiny, Litigation and Enforcement, Too.”

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