Limiting Antitrust Exposure in the Employment Setting

In what has generally been known as the “Great Resignation,” practically 50 million individuals voluntarily resigned from their jobs in 2021.[1] Nearly all of these resigning sought the next paying or higher alternative with one other employer.[2] Properly earlier than the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, millennials – the largest era in the workforce[3] – garnered a fame for job-hopping.[4]

In an period of unprecedented worker mobility, employers face rising challenges retaining prime expertise. Compounding the social challenges with retaining expertise is the elevated scrutiny on non-compete agreements between employers and workers by courts, legislators, and regulators.[5] In consequence, employers could search different means to guard their pursuits and keep away from the disruption and prices related to worker departures, comparable to an settlement with their opponents to not poach one another’s workers or an settlement to set a cap on wages. Employers tempted to proceed alongside these strains should pay attention to the vital antitrust publicity that may end result from some of these preparations.

No-Poaching and Wage-Fixing Agreements

“No-poach agreements” are any settlement between opponents to not rent, solicit, recruit, or cold-call one another’s workers, whereas “wage-fixing agreements” are any settlement between opponents to: (1) repair a specific wage, set salaries at a sure degree or inside a sure vary, or observe sure tips; (2) improve salaries by an agreed share; and/or (3) keep or decrease salaries.

Are some of these agreements unlawful? The reply is, not surprisingly, it relies upon.

The Sherman Act

Part 1 of the Sherman Act offers that “[e]very contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, is declared to be illegal.” The Supreme Court docket has lengthy interpreted this part to ban solely unreasonable restraints on commerce.[6]

To find out whether or not a restraint on commerce is unreasonable, courts apply one among two guidelines: the per se rule or the rule of purpose.[7] Restraints may be unreasonable per se as a result of they nearly all the time have a tendency to limit competitors.[8] Whether or not no-poaching or wage-fixing agreements are unlawful largely activates which rule applies. Traditionally, the per se rule has utilized to agreements between direct opponents to repair costs, allocate markets or prospects, prohibit output, or boycott opponents. Restraints that aren’t unreasonable per se are judged underneath the rule of purpose. The rule of purpose requires courts to conduct a fact-specific evaluation of market energy and market construction to evaluate the restraint’s precise impact on competitors.[9]

The Sherman Act imposes prison penalties of as much as $100 million for an organization and $1 million for a person, together with as much as 10 years in jail.[10] Moreover, an employer may be held chargeable for civil damages, together with treble damages and attorneys’ charges.[11]

The Preliminary DOJ Civil Actions

In 2010, the Antitrust Division of the Division of Justice (DOJ) started bringing civil actions towards a number of Silicon Valley firms, alleging “no cold-call” agreements violated the Sherman Act.[12] Quickly thereafter, personal plaintiff class motion fits adopted on related theories,[13] which resulted in headline-grabbing settlements for a whole bunch of thousands and thousands of {dollars}.[14]

The DOJ Steering

In 2016, the DOJ and FTC issued “Antitrust Guidance for Human Resources Professionals” (the Steering).[15] The Steering addressed no-poaching and wage-fixing agreements.[16] The Steering’s acknowledged objective was to “alert human resource (HR) professionals and others involved in the hiring and compensation decisions to potential violations of the antitrust laws.”[17]

The Steering claimed that “naked” wage-fixing or no-poaching agreements amongst employers are per se unlawful.[18] The DOJ defined {that a} bare settlement is one that’s “separate from or not reasonably necessary to a larger legitimate collaboration between the employers.”[19]

Notably, the Steering introduced a major enforcement coverage shift. The DOJ acknowledged, “going forward, [it] intends to proceed criminally against naked wage fixing or no-poaching agreements.”[20] The Steering defined that such agreements “eliminate competition in the same irredeemable way as agreements to fix product prices or allocate customers, which have traditionally been criminally investigated and prosecuted as hardcore cartel conduct.”[21]

The DOJ Legal Enforcement Actions

Greater than 4 years after the Steering got here out, the DOJ started following by on its acknowledged intention to pursue prison expenses for bare no-poaching and wage-fixing agreements.[22] As was the case with the DOJ’s first civil enforcement actions, personal litigants have tacked on class motion fits mirroring the indictments.[23]

In these circumstances, the DOJ contends that the preparations at problem are per se illegal underneath the Sherman Act. In each United States v. Jindal, the first prison wage-fixing case introduced by the DOJ, and United States v. DaVita Inc., the first prison no-poaching case introduced by the DOJ, the courtroom denied the defendants’ motions to dismiss.[24] Nonetheless, the jury just lately returned verdicts for the protection in every case.[25]

Avoiding Legal responsibility: Finest Practices

These kind of circumstances usually come up as a result of HR professionals or executives enter into agreements with opponents, unaware of the antitrust implications. Whereas the preliminary wave of circumstances concerned massive Silicon Valley tech firms, three of the most up-to-date indictments contain comparatively small well being care firms.[26] However the current protection verdicts in the prison proceedings, employers – no matter measurement or trade[27] – ought to guarantee they’ve procedures and insurance policies in place to mitigate their antirust publicity.

Employers could need to present coaching for his or her workers and executives concerned in hiring and compensation selections to teach them about the potential penalties of no-poaching and wage-fixing agreements.

           1.        The DOJ Interprets Settlement, Opponents, and Compensation Broadly

Employers must be cognizant of three essential details. First, agreements to not rent or solicit a competitor’s workers or to repair wages can run afoul of the antitrust legal guidelines irrespective of if the settlement is casual or formal, written or unwritten, or spoken or unstated.[28] Second, these agreements can violate the antitrust legal guidelines no matter whether or not the firms topic to the settlement make the similar merchandise or compete to supply the similar companies. If the firms compete to rent or retain workers, they’re thought-about opponents in the employment market.[29] Third, particularly with regard to wage-fixing agreements, the DOJ interprets wages broadly to incorporate any component of compensation, together with, for instance, gymnasium memberships, parking, transit subsidies, meals or meal subsidies and related advantages of employment.[30]

           2.        Warning In opposition to Sharing Info with Opponents

Employers must also watch out to coach their workers about the dangers related to sharing data with opponents. Even when there may be not an express settlement to repair compensation, exchanging competitively-sensitive data may function proof of an implicit unlawful settlement.[31] Equally, whereas sharing data shouldn’t be per se unlawful by itself, an settlement to share data could result in civil legal responsibility underneath the rule of purpose whether it is prone to have an anti-competitive impact.[32]

If employers do have to share such data with opponents, the data must be: exchanged by a impartial third occasion (e.g., a commerce affiliation); historic (greater than three months previous); and aggregated from a big group of reporting employers (as least 5) so opponents can’t hyperlink explicit knowledge to a person supply.[33]

           3.        Any Settlement Should Be Ancillary To a Professional Joint Enterprise or the Sale of a Enterprise

If a no-poaching or wage-fixing settlement should be entered into, employers ought to guarantee it’s half of a bigger professional three way partnership or a merger or acquisition.[34] FTC officers Debbie Feinstein, Geoffrey Inexperienced, and Tara Koslov have recognized “consulting services, outsourcing vendors, and mergers or acquisitions” as a part of a non-exhaustive listing of circumstances in which no-poaching agreements won’t violate the antitrust legal guidelines.[35]

Usually, if the events are in a vertical relationship (e.g., producers and resellers) or the settlement is in any other case ancillary to a bigger professional collaboration, then courts will apply the rule of purpose. On the different hand, courts will seemingly apply the per se rule to purely horizontal agreements (i.e., these between direct opponents).[36] Courts have lengthy acknowledged that the rule of purpose applies to restrictive agreements ancillary to a merger or acquisition.[37] At present, the problem federal courts are generally grappling with is no-poaching provisions contained in franchise agreements. Courts haven’t come to a consensus on whether or not the rule of purpose applies or the per se rule,[38] and even whether or not a franchise and its franchisees are separate actors for functions of antitrust analyses.[39]

Even when an employer is assured the no-poaching provision is ancillary to a professional three way partnership, the settlement ought to: (1) particularly determine the ancillary three way partnership; (2) be narrowly tailor-made in scope (concerning each the workers lined and geographically) and period; (3) to the extent attainable, determine with cheap specificity the workers who’re topic to the restrictions; and (4) present a professional pro-competitive foundation for why the non-compete is important (a mere want to be free from competitors shouldn’t be ample).

           4.        Contemplate the Relevant Regulation

Whereas the United States has taken the lead in investigating and taking enforcement motion towards wage-fixing and no-poaching agreements, indications are that Europe shouldn’t be far behind. On October 19, 2021, Govt Vice-President and Commissioner for Competitors of the European Fee, Margrethe Vestager, delivered a speech that addressed no-poach agreements.[40] Most notably, Vestager acknowledged “some buyer cartels do have a very direct effect on individuals, as well as on competition, when companies collude to fix the wages they pay; or when they use so-called ‘no-poach’ agreements as an indirect way to keep wages down, restricting talent from moving where it serves the economy best.”

Whereas some nationwide competitors authorities in Europe have taken enforcement motion towards no-poach and wage-fixing agreements, no enforcement motion has been taken but by authorities in the United Kingdom or by the European Fee. Vestager’s feedback sign that may very well be altering.

           5.        Contemplate Taking Benefit of the DOJ’s Leniency Coverage

Employers could want to evaluation any present preparations they’ve with opponents and, to the extent there are any doubtlessly unlawful agreements, contemplate reporting that to the DOJ to benefit from its leniency coverage.[41] The European Fee has the same leniency program.[42]


Employers must be cautious of inserting an excessive amount of reliance on the current jury verdicts for the defendants in Jindal and DaVita. The DOJ exhibits no indicators of slowing its enforcement initiative towards labor agreements.





[4] (“Unattached to organizations and institutions, people from this generation — born between 1980 and 1996 — are said to move freely from company to company, more so than any other generation.”).

[5] See, e.g., (July 9, 2021 Govt Order issued by President Biden directing the Federal Commerce Fee (FTC) to “consider working with the rest of the Commission to exercise the FTC’s statutory rulemaking authority … to curtail the unfair use of non-compete clauses and other clauses or agreements that may unfairly limit worker mobility.”); (stating 30 states (together with Washington, D.C.) now have legal guidelines affecting restrictive covenants).

[6] State Oil Co. v. Khan, 522 U.S. 3, 10 (1997)

[7] Ohio v. Am. Categorical Co., 138 S. Ct. 2274, 2284 (2018)

[8] Id.

[9] Id.

[10] 15 U.S.C. § 1.

[11] 15 U.S.C. § 15.

[12] See (criticism towards Adobe, Apple, Google, Intel, Intuit, and Pixar associated to 5 “no cold call” agreements), (criticism towards Lucasfilm associated to a “no cold call” settlement with Pixar), and (criticism towards eBay associated to no poach settlement with Intuit); see additionally

[13] See In re Excessive-Tech Emp. Antitrust Litig., 985 F. Supp. 2nd 1167 (N.D. Cal. 2013); In re Animation Employees Antitrust Litig.,123 F. Supp. 3d 1175 (N.D. Cal. 2015); Garrison v. Oracle Corp., 159 F. Supp. 3d 1044 (N.D. Cal. 2016).

[14] See, e.g., In re Excessive-Tech Worker Antitrust Litigation, 2015 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 118051, at *12-13, *22-23 (N.D. Cal. Sept. 2, 2015) ($435 million settlement).

[15] See Division of Justice and Federal Commerce Fee, Antitrust Steering for Human Useful resource Professionals, October 2016, out there at

[16] Id. at 3.

[17] Id. at 1.

[18] Id.

[19] Id.

[20] Id. at 4.

[21] Id.

[22] See, e.g., Press Launch, Division of Justice Workplace of Public Affairs, Former Proprietor of Well being Care Staffing Firm Indicted for Wage Fixing (Dec. 10, 2020), out there at; Press Launch, Division of Justice Workplace of Public Affairs, Well being Care Firm Indicted for Labor Market Collusion (Jan. 7, 2021), out there at; Press Launch, Division of Justice Workplace of Public Affairs, Well being Care Staffing Firm and Govt Indicted for Colluding to Suppress Wages of Faculty Nurses (Mar. 30, 2021), out there at; Press Launch, Former Aerospace Outsourcing Govt Charged for Key Function in a Lengthy-Operating Antitrust Conspiracy (Dec. 9, 2021), out there at

[23] See, e.g., Pena v. Surgical Associates, LLC, et al., 1:21-cv-03803 (N.D. Sick. July 16, 2021).

[24] United States v. Jindal, 2021 WL 5578687, at *5 (E.D. Tex. Nov. 29, 2021); United States v. DaVita Inc., 2022 WL 266759, at *8 (D. Colo. Jan. 28, 2022)

[25] United States v. Jindal, et al., No. 4:20-cr-00358 (April 14, 2022 E.D. Tex.) (ECF No. 112) (discovering defendants not responsible of violating the Sherman Act, whereas discovering one defendant responsible on a single rely of obstruction of Federal Commerce Fee proceedings); United States v. DaVita Inc. et al., 1:21-CR-00229 (April 15, 2022 D. Col.) (ECF No. 264) (returning not responsible verdict for defendants on all counts).  

[26]  See supra notice 22.

[27] See Seaman v. Duke College, 1:15-CV-462 (M.D.N.C. Sept. 25, 2019), ECF No. 388 (No-poaching settlement between Duke College and the College of North Carolina resulted in a $54 million settlement).

[28] See Division of Justice and Federal Commerce Fee, Antitrust Steering for Human Useful resource Professionals, October 2016, at 3, out there at

[29] Id. at 2.

[30] Id. at 9.

[31] Id. at 4.

[32] Id. at 8.

[33] Id. at 5.

[34] Id. at 3.


[36] See AYA Healthcare v. AMN Healthcare, Civ. Motion No. 17-205-MMA, 2018 WL 3032552, at *16 (S.D. Cal. June 19, 2018); United States v. eBay, Inc., 968 F.Supp.2nd 1030 (N.D. Cal. 2013)

[37] See, e.g., Copperweld Corp. v. Indep. Tube Corp., 467 U.S. 752, 768 (1984); Eichorn v. AT&T Corp., 248 F.3d 131, 144 (3d Cir. 2001)

[38] Evaluate DeSlandes v. McDonald’s USA, LLC, No. 17-C-4857, 2021 WL 3187668 (N.D. Sick. Jul. 28, 2021) and Conrad v. Jimmy John’s Franchise, LLC, No. 18-cv-00133, 2021 WL 3268339 (S.D. Sick. Jul. 30, 2021) with Butler v. Jimmy John’s Franchise, LLC, 331 F. Supp. 3d 786, 797 (S.D. Sick. 2018) and In re Papa John’s Worker and Franchisee Worker Antitrust Litig., No. 18-cv-00825, 2019 WL 5386484, at *9 (W.D. Ky. Oct. 21, 2019).

[39] See, e.g., Arrington v. Burger King Worldwide, Inc., 448 F. Supp. 3d 1322, 1332 (S.D. Fla. 2020)

[40] Margrethe Vestager, A brand new period of cartel enforcement, Speech at the Italian Antitrust Affiliation Annual Convention (Oct. 22, 2021), out there at

[41] See Division of Justice and Federal Commerce Fee, Antitrust Steering for Human Useful resource Professionals, October 2016, at 8, out there at (the first company to report the antitrust offense and cooperate with any investigation won’t be criminally charged).


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