Challenging Policy on Climate Change Grounds

Divisional Courtroom cut up on problem towards UK Export Finance’s determination to offer finance to the Mozambique LNG Challenge

In R (on the application of Friends of the Earth Limited) (the “Claimant”) v The Secretary of State for International Trade / Export Credits Guarantee Department (UK Export Finance) (“UKEF”), Chancellor of the Exchequer (the “Defendants”) v Total E&P Mozambique Area 1 Limitada, Moz Lng1 Financing Company Limited (the “Interested Parties”),1 two judges thought-about a problem by Associates of the Earth (“FoE”) towards UKEF’s determination to offer as much as $1.15 billion in export finance to a liquefied pure fuel undertaking in Mozambique (the “Project”). 

On this problem, the Courtroom needed to take into account the authorized implications of the Paris Climate Change Settlement 2015 (the “Paris Agreement”) to the choice to help a fossil gas undertaking.  Particularly, the implications of Article 2.1(c) of the Paris Settlement which supplies that the settlement, “aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty, including by…making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions”.

FoE sought an order quashing the choice of the Secretary of State that UKEF would offer help to the Challenge (the “Decision”). 

The declare was made on the idea that:

  • The Determination was primarily based on an error of regulation or reality, specifically that the Challenge and its funding was suitable with the UK’s commitments underneath the Paris Settlement, which FoE contended it was not; and/or,
  • The Determination was illegal insofar because it was reached with out regard to important related concerns in reaching the view that funding the Challenge was aligned with the UK and Mozambique’s obligations underneath the Paris Settlement,

Lord Justice Stuart-Smith concluded that FoE’s problem ought to fail.  Mrs Justice Thornton respectfully disagreed with Lord Justice Stuart-Smith’s conclusion, discovering that that UKEF had erred as a matter of regulation within the strategy to its Determination.  Though the declare failed following Lord Justice Stuart-Smith’s judgment, the Courtroom granted FoE permission to enchantment.


What was the dispute about?

The Challenge began with the invention of an enormous amount of pure fuel off the coast of northern Mozambique in 2010.  In 2019 UKEF was approached to take part within the Challenge, United Kingdom content material for the Challenge having been recognized. 

Underneath statute2 the Secretary of State for Worldwide Commerce could make preparations to offer monetary services and help to individuals carrying on enterprise exterior the UK thought-about conducive to supporting or growing provides or potential provides of products and companies to individuals carrying on enterprise inside the UK.  These capabilities are exercised and carried out by means of UKEF performing as an export credit score company.

All through 2019 and into 2020, UKEF carried out its screening course of for the Challenge.  A part of that course of concerned a spotlight on environmental and human rights and local weather change concerns.  It was accepted that on the date of its choices in regards to the Challenge, UKEF was underneath no free-standing public regulation obligation that required it to make sure that any funding help for fossil fuels affecting emissions was consistent with the Paris Settlement targets and plans.3  However, UKEF determined that local weather change impacts and consideration of the Paris Settlement had been concerns that must be taken into consideration together with different components in making its determination in respect of the Challenge.

As a part of its course of, UKEF ready a doc which grew to become generally known as the Climate Change Report (the “CCR”).  The train included consideration of the potential green-house fuel (“GHG”) emissions of the Challenge. GHG emissions are sometimes divided into three ‘Scopes’ or classes. The direct emissions related to an exercise (within the current case the extraction of LNG) fall inside Scope 1.  Scope 2 consists of the oblique emissions from the technology of bought electrical energy. Scope 3 are all oblique emissions not included in Scope 2, together with the usage of offered merchandise. 

UKEF didn’t conduct an evaluation to quantify complete Scope 3 GHG emissions for the Challenge though it did take recommendation.  UKEF submitted within the litigation that its understanding, “was that there was no clear or comprehensive methodology that could be followed to assess Scope 3 emissions impacts.4

The CCR concluded that:

The Challenge has a big affect on [Mozambique’s] emissions however remains to be thought-about in alignment to Mozambique’s acknowledged local weather insurance policies and by extension with their Paris Settlement commitments.

The Challenge’s Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions (from the Challenge Facility) will considerably enhance Mozambique’s GHG emissions i.e. account for as much as 10% of Mozambique’s nationwide GHG emissions however will on the opposite hand present the nation with elevated monetary assets with which to put money into renewable know-how and enhance local weather resilience. …

The Challenge’s Scope 3 emissions are brought on by the tip use of the LNG. Scope 3 emissions will considerably exceed Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions from the Challenge services… Nevertheless…UKEF agrees with the view that fuel is a transition gas, which can stay a part of the worldwide power combine over the lifetime of the proposed tenor of UKEF help and past, and that LNG will subsequently stay commercially viable. …

…UKEF’s view that though the Challenge’s Scope 3 (together with its Scope 1 and a couple of) emissions will contribute to world GHG emissions the online impact could also be a lower in future GHG emissions supplied that the Challenge LNG is used to switch and/or displace the usage of extra polluting fossil fuels.

Fuel from the Challenge can also be thought-about by the Authorities of Mozambique to be an vital contributor to the power transition of Mozambique consistent with its…Paris Settlement commitments. This aligns with the UK Authorities’s dedication to help growing nations to answer the challenges and alternatives of local weather change as a part of its personal Paris Settlement obligations.5

Following its processes, UKEF submitted to the Secretary of State a advice to underwrite monetary help to the Challenge. UKEF’s submission really useful that ministers “may wish to pay particular attention to the [CCR].”6  In summarising the choice to offer help to the Challenge, the Chief Govt of UKEF stated that he had taken into consideration key concerns together with, “the [CCR] setting out the significant impact that the project will have due to increased GHG emissions but also taking account of gas as part of the overall energy mix for the World’s power transition for the foreseeable future and beyond the lifetime of the potential UKEF supported facility.7

Whereas the Treasury famous that help for a fossil gas undertaking was contentious and a number of other ministers expressed reservations, consent from the Treasury to UKEF’s advice was acquired and the Chief Govt of UKEF permitted the underwriting minute on 30 June 2020 and the clearance of the required authorized paperwork on 1 July 2020.

FoE issued an utility for permission to use for judicial evaluate of the Determination in September 2020 and permission to use was granted by Mrs. Justice Thornton in April 2021.8

The Courtroom’s Determination

The declare was for judicial evaluate which is a mechanism to appropriate illegal conduct on the a part of public authorities.  The judgment is evident that the deserves of UKEF’s Determination weren’t a matter for the Courtroom, the Courtroom was involved solely with the lawfulness of the Determination.   

Key to the query of lawfulness is the obligation of a public physique to hold out ample enquiry prior to creating its determination.   In his judgment, Lord Justice Stuart-Smith adopted the query of Lord Diplock, “[T]he question for the court is, did the Secretary of State ask himself the right question and take reasonable steps to acquaint himself with the relevant information to enable him to answer it correctly?9

He famous that the principle level underpinning FoE’s declare was that the CCR didn’t adequately tackle and quantify the GHG emissions that may be generated by the Challenge and was, subsequently, insufficient to the extent that UKEF’s Determination was vitiated by a failure to have correct regard to the local weather change impacts of the Challenge.10

In dismissing the declare, he held the next:

  • That the scope of the Defendant’s obligation to tell themselves was outlined and circumscribed by the character of the choice they needed to take;11

  • The Determination was not whether or not the Challenge ought to go forward and, subsequently, would haven’t any materials affect on emissions generated by the Challenge which was to be developed in any occasion;12

  • The Determination was multi-faceted required a variety of judgments to be made throughout a large spectrum of coverage areas involving questions of political coverage, financial and scientific judgment.  The choice-makers’ judgment about what info was required as a way to make their determination is entitled to a large margin of appreciation and a comparatively low depth of enquiry and evaluate;13

  • There was no authorized or coverage obligation to quantify Scope 3 emissions. Nor was quantification of Scope 3 emissions crucial for the needs of the Determination;14

  • It was implicit, apparent and accepted that the event of a serious LNG subject would result in very excessive ranges of emissions. Quantification of GHG emissions (if it could possibly be achieved) wouldn’t advance arguments in relation to the choice that the Defendants needed to take. UKEF was entitled to determine that, though it selected to incorporate consideration of local weather change impacts and the Paris Settlement alongside different components in making its determination, it was not obliged to present them better prominence or weight or to acquire additional and extra technical info than it did;15

  • The CCR didn’t set out or purport to offer a complete calculation and evaluation of the Challenge’s Scope 3 emissions. It was not obliged to, not least as a result of (a) the Defendants’ determination would haven’t any affect on emissions; (b) Scope 3 emissions (and the way they could possibly be accommodated in carbon budgets) could be the duty of buying nations within the mild of the use to which the LNG was put; (c) UKEF was entitled to just accept recommendation that the variables affecting future use and technology of Scope 3 emissions would render any calculations too unsure to be of worth; and (d) the Defendants might rationally take the Determination with out having quantified estimates of Scope 3 emissions;16 and

  • UKEF’s strategy as to whether the Challenge was in alignment with Mozambique’s acknowledged local weather insurance policies concerned recognition of the conflicting goals and aspirations of the Paris Settlement and an evaluative balancing train.17 It was entitled to kind the view that the help for the Challenge that was in contemplation was in accordance with Mozambique’s obligations underneath the Paris Settlement as correctly understood and that view was at the least tenable.18

Mrs. Justice Thornton respectfully disagreed with Lord Justice Stuart-Smith’s evaluation.

She concluded that:

  • UKEF did not discharge its obligation of inquiry in relation to the calculation of Scope 3 emissions and that UKEF’s judgment {that a} high-level qualitative evaluate of the affect was ample was unreasonable;19

  • There may be well-established methodology for quantifying the complete emissions affect of a undertaking and that UKEF was given clear recommendation by its personal specialists that the failure to quantify the Scope 3 emissions undermined the credibility of its local weather evaluation;20

  • UKEF had got down to produce a local weather affect evaluation that may “fully acknowledgefully consider” and “evidence” the local weather change dangers offered by the undertaking in order that they could possibly be “coherently presented to the ultimate decision makers, alongside the other project considerations” however that the local weather evaluation didn’t, nonetheless, embrace a calculation of the Scope 3 emissions;21

  • That, accordingly, UKEF did not make affordable and legally satisfactory enquiries in relation to a key consideration within the determination making (specifically local weather dangers);22 and

  • That the failure to quantify the Scope 3 emissions, and the opposite flaws within the CCR meant that there was no rational foundation by which to exhibit that funding for the Challenge is in keeping with Article 2(1)(c) of the Paris Settlement and a pathway to low greenhouse fuel emissions.23


This isn’t the primary time that choices by public authorities have been challenged by means of judicial evaluate on local weather grounds, for instance the current problem to the Oil and Fuel Authority’s Technique was dismissed in January of this 12 months.24  Nevertheless, it’s the first problem to be made on the idea of a public authority’s alleged failure to correctly take into account the implications of the Paris Settlement and, subsequently, has potential world implication notably for export credit score businesses.  Given the cut up determination of the Courtroom and the forthcoming enchantment, the matter will little doubt be adopted intently by individuals within the power sector for steering as to the authorized implications of the Paris Settlement on fossil gas tasks.


1. [2022] EWHC 568 (Admin), 2022 WL 00770182 (the “Judgment”)

2. Part 1 of the Export and Funding Ensures Act 1991

3. Paragraph 47 of the Judgment, paragraph 303 of the Judgment

4. Paragraph 68 of the judgment

5. Paragraph 77 of the Judgment

6. Paragraph 79 of the Judgment

7. Paragraph 82 of the Judgment

8. R (on the appliance of Associates of the Earth Restricted) v The Secretary of State for Worldwide Commerce / Export Credit score Assure Division (UK Export Finance) / Her Majesty’s Treasury v Whole E&P Mozambique Space 1 Limitada / Moz Lng1 Financing Firm Restricted [2021] EWHC 2369 (Admin)

9. Secretary of State for Training and Science v Metropolitan Borough of Tameside [1976] 3 All ER 665 at 696, [1977] AC 1014 at 1065

10. Paragraph 161 of the Judgment

11. Paragraph 236 of the Judgment

12. Paragraph 236 of the Judgment

13. Paragraph 236 of the Judgment

14. Paragraph 237 of the Judgment

15. Paragraph 237 of the Judgment

16. Paragraph 238 of the Judgment

17. Paragraph 231 of the Judgment

18. Paragraph 240 of the Judgment

19. Paragraph 331 of the Judgment

20. Paragraph 333 of the Judgment

21. Paragraphs 332 and 333 of the Judgment

22. Paragraph 333 of the Judgment

23. Paragraph 335 of the Judgment

24. Cox & Ors, R (On the Software Of) v The Oil And Fuel Authority & Ors [2022] EWHC 75 (Admin)

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